Jun 20, 2008

Friday June 20, 2008 Norma Steinberg

Theme: Man Friday

21A: Some western resorts: DUDE RANCHES

49A: Longtime New Year's Eve conductor: GUY LOMBARDO

3D: Second-story man: CAT BURGLAR

29D: Society: FELLOWSHIP

MATE in Australia, BLOKE/CHAP in the UK.

I've never heard of GUY LOMBARDO, nor am I familiar with DUDE RANCHES or CAT BURGLAR. But they are all gettable from the crosses. I am surprised to see Norman Steinberg's name on today's puzzle though, she is our Wednesday girl. This puzzle does have an easy Wednesday feel, doesn't it? I expect many of you will ace this one.

Not much to gripe about, except 32A: A & M student: AGGIE. It's not an accurate clue. Needs to add "Texas", as there is also a Florida A & M (Rattlers). FYI, AGGIE is also a variant spelling of AGATE (the "Playing marble"). (Update: I was wrong, please read Dr. Dad's opinion on Comments section).

I don't find this puzzle to possess any ELAN (14A: Panache). It's pretty dry and flat, with all those repeat offenders.


5A: Misbehave: ACT UP

10A: Dorothy's dog: TOTO. Does TOTO have a star in Hollywood Walk of Fame? Look at this TITO (41D: Musician Puente) Star.

15A: Capital of Idaho: BOISE. I was the same as Bill, always thought that "I da ho" was only a type of potato.

18A: ___ of magnitude: ORDER. I would not have got it without down clues. I only knew the Chinese word 數量級. Can you read these 3 Chinese characters? Or are they just 3 square boxes to you?

19A: Part of a lot sometimes: ACRE. And 10D: Parcels of land: TRACTS

23A: Transmission cells: NEURONS

26A: McNally's partner: RAND. Foreign to me. Only knew Ayn RAND.

27A: Summons: SENDS FOR

34A: Chemist Pauling: LINUS. No idea. Wow, he got 2 Nobel prize (Chemistry in 1954 & Nobel Peace in 1962). Wikiepedia says he is "a member of a small group of individuals who have been awarded more than one Nobel Prize, one of only two people to receive them in different fields (the other was Marie Curie), and the only person in that group to have been awarded each of his prizes without having to share it with another recipient". I only knew this LINUS.

37A: Ricochet: CAROM. Billiards bounce.

45A: Traded without money: BARTERED

46A: Escaped: GOT AWAY. I don't know much about crossword construction, but I dislike when GOT and GETS (49D: Catches on to) appear in the same grid. I was also bothered by the appearance of both SLEEP & SLEPT on Tuesday Barry Silk's CLASS puzzle.

45A: Lyricist Gershwin: IRA. Yawner, yawner. When are you going to clue it as "Grp from Belfast"?

56A: Els or Kovacs: ERNIE. ERNIE Els has hopped onto the Butch Harmon's bandwagon. Not a good time for David Leadbetter right now, unless Michelle Wie pulls off a win at US Open next week. I wonder why our editor never Cubs' great ERNIE Banks, given that TMS puzzle primarily serves the Chicago area.


6D: Quantities of wood: CORDS. I was not familiar with this "wood stacks" meaning of CORDS.

9D: Every year: PER ANNUM. Could not jam in PERENNIAL.

24D: Fence piece: RAIL. My first response was EPEE (Fencing piece).

32D: Peck in "Moby Dick": AHAB. Have never watched "Moby Dick".

33D: Festive: GALA. Have some GALA apples.

34D: After midnight, say: LATE. Here is Simon & Garfunkel's "LATE in the Evening". I am now listening to Michael Learns to Rock's "That's Why You Go Away". I also love their "25 Minutes LATE": "Boy I've missed your kisses all the time, but this is 25 minutes too LATE...".

It's such a boring puzzle today, let's discuss a little bit about music. What have you been listening to lately? Who are your favorite singers? Please share with us.

37D: Chewy candies: CARAMELS

38D: Caesar's TV sidekick: COCA (Imogene)

44D: Gnawing animal: RODENT. How can you get rid of those squirrels? They love to RUIN (16A: Destroy) our vegetable garden.

46D: Pam or Rosey: GRIER. I did not know Pam GRIER. She was in "Jackie Brown". Rosey GRIER was one of RFK's bodyguards. Wikipedia says he was a member of the original "Fearsome Foursome" of the 1957 NY Giants & also a member of the "Fearsome Foursome "of the 1963 LA RAMS (31D: St. Louis football team), very interesting!

51D: Eli's alma mater: YALE. I think we've had enough YALE graduate presidents, almost 20 years, way too long.

52D: Newscaster Hume: BRIT. Anchor of Fox News' "Special Report with BRIT Hume". He is a very very avid crossword solver.

57D: New Deal agcy.: WPA (Work Projects Administration).

Alright, the last one, 40D: Deli offering: HERO. "There is a HERO if you look inside your heart..." Enjoy!


Dennis said...

Good morning, C.C. & gang - without a doubt, one of the simplest Friday puzzles ever. It was pretty much as fast as I could write. Again, age helps with answers like Guy Lombardo; when I was little, I used to have to sit through my parents listening to him every year on New Year's Eve.

Spectacular day here; have an outstanding Friday.

Jeanne said...

Morning all,
Dennis, I'm sure your writing couldn't keep up with your mind. I think it was one of the easiest puzzles ever.
My brother and sister-in-law are visiting the next couple of days and I usually allow him to do the puzzles. He is truly the master of the family. Have a good weekend all.

Dick said...

Good morning Cc and all. Todays puzzle was a snap and I might have even completed it in sub Dennis time. LOL I doubt if it was really sub Dennis but it was non stop with no hic ups and no mistakes. Too easy for a Friday. Got to run as it is a beautiful day and the tee time is fast approaching. Have a great week end everyone.

Dr. Dad said...

Good morning C.C. & the DF's.

C.C.-there are several universities that are A & M. That stands for Agricultural & Mechanical. When someone is attending an A& M university they are commonly referred to as "Aggies" because of the agricultural aspect of the school. Aggies in this sense does not refer to a mascot as would the Florida A & M Rattlers or the Texas A & M Aggies, rather it is the choice of career in agricultural (or mechanical) professions.

I liked "chemist Pauling." Rhode Island made it with "quahog." And neurons (complete with axons). Ollie is back and sired (albeit a bit late for Father's Day). So is after a long respite.
Rosie Grier and Ray Milland starred in a horrible sci-fi flick back in 1972 called "The Thing With Two Heads." A truly bad movie.

Lots of clues and answers for Lois in OK - she probably used a Rand McNally to find the Dude Ranches so she can drive the cowboys Loco and lead them to Ruin. She won't be able to Shed her reputation nor Atone for her "Acting Up." She yells "Whoa" to the ponies that "Got Away". She's also close to Kansas (Toto) and Texas (Aggie) where there are lots of "acres." She could even ride the "Rail" out there. I hope she doesn't Tire and Nod off.

Today is "Be Afraid To Go In The Water Day." Jaws opened in theaters on this day in 1975.

This comment took longer to write than the puzzle took to solve (6.5 minutes).

Have a good one.

Katherine said...

Good morning everyone. Yes, this one was a breeze.
I never heard of Tito Puente, and he even has a star on Hollywood Blvd.
I could see the Chinese characters, CC. I never heard of Michael, but I liked the video, he's good.
I knew Linus Pauling, he was big at promoting vitamin C.
I think everyone knows my favorite singer is Keith Urban, but I also like the Eagles, Jude Cole, Jackson Browne, Paul Rodgers, from Bad Comapany........mostly rock music and country. How about you CC?

Dr. Dad said...

Oh, forgot to mention that I must be getting old also as I remember Guy Lombardo.

Superfrey said...

This one was a breeze... as fast as I could write... by far the easiest puzzle we have had in a while. Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians I think it was. A New Year's Eve staple. It was boring bubbly music mostly. Tito was a latin conductor... Guy was born in Canada..Age helps in getting these two clues. Off to NJ for a wedding...back on Tuesday.... Ciao

C.C. Burnikel said...

I think there is a mix-up mistake. This has to be a Wednesday puzzle. What's your answer to my 34D question?

My mistake. I thought AGGIE refers to the mascot. Have added a note to the blog entry. And your music preferences are?

Sade, "Michael Learns to Rock" & the Corrs.

Jeane & Dick,
Please share with us your favorite songs/singers/bands.

Have a good trip!

Dr. Dad said...

Dick - regarding your comment about my blog. Of course I will let perverts and DF's visit. I will try to come up with some topics (though I haven't worked that part out completely) that we can all chime in on. It wouldn't be a good blog site without DF's.

Dr. Dad said...

C.C. - I grew up with the likes of Aerosmith, KISS, Ted Nugent, Boston, Bob Seger, Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple, Dire Straits, Nitty Gritty Dirt Band, CCR. Never got into classical, jazz, or the like. Can't stand RAP (ugh!).

Barry G. said...

Morning, all!

Ayup, a puzzle full of gimmes today. For a change, I didn't need to rely on the perps to get a single answer. It helped that I actually knew who Linus Pauling and Guy Lombardo was and have eaten my share of quahogs over the years...

Argyle said...

ho-hum puzzle but I bet the comments will make up for it!

I like Tina Turner's answer to 40D "We Don't Need Another Hero".
I've always been partial to one hit wonders. Watch "" a real riot.

Dennis said...

C.C., my music tastes are all over the place, from AC/DC & Metallica to Sade & Phil Collins, and from Chuck Berry to Coldplay. Completely depends on my mood, but most times, I've got rock & roll on the car radio; goes well with a convertible.
Not a fan of opera or rap.

Bill said...

Wow, Less than 15 mins! Better than the other day. Lots of reuesd/recycled clues and I guess that's why I had such an easy time.
Can't even find anything to complain about! And, that's just not right!!
Yeah, lots of Lois references today. I'm glad she's only one person' 'cause if she were to be cloned I'm sure OK could never recover, even with federal assistance!!
Music?? I suppose you can guess that. Always been a big fan of older country music And now playing a lot of bluegrass.
As a matter of fact we're off to Lowville, NY later this AM for the TUG HILL BLUEGRASS FESTIVAL. Two shows Sat and a gospel show Sun AM.

NYTAnonimo said...


Song I've been hearing a lot lately

and this one

Can you tell the age of the company I've been keeping!?

Another puzzle by Norma Steinberg (since this one was so easy) can be found here

Hope you all have a good weekend!

Anonymous said...

Good morning cc, etal. I too cruised though this morning. Cc - I can see the chinese characters. Rand McNally publishes maps & road atlases. My musical tastes vary depending on mood, time of day, activity, etc. If you haven't, visit - you can set up your own personal (ad free) radio station based on whichever artist you like & it will play that artist as well as similar music - pretty neat

Bill said...

Here's a link to the web page.
Coulden't put it in before 'cause I didn't want to start over again!!

NYTAnonimo said...

Thanks for the link Chris-I'm going to bookmark that one!

Dr. Dad said...

chris in la - is pretty neat. I like it. Thanks.

Jeanne said...

C.C.,I like everything from Josh Groban to the Eagles and the Doobie Brothers. Like the softer side of Rock n Roll. Never liked country; although Taylor Swift is originally from our area.

Bill said...

Here's a link to a July festival we're appearing at.

NYTAnonimo said...

On the topic of music, if you haven't seen the movie Young @ Heart, check it out. It's a pretty amazing story.

Dr. Dad said...

Bill - good luck at the music fest.

ndw said...

Wow - what a breeze! I flew through this one too. Makes me feel good after Wednesdays puzzle. Didn't get to finish Thursdays - was a little busy at work.

Well folks we are getting ready to leave for the Bluegrass festival in Lowville, NY looking forward to the 3 days away from the norm! Have a great weekend.


Dr. Dad said...

Where the hell is Lois?

lois said...

Good morning CC & DF's: This puzzle was done mostly by just the across cluing. Super easy and some good stuff! Dude Ranches? Oh yeah! I've corralled a lot dudes on the ranch already...none said Ono or Whoa! Some Aggies however 'got away' and are in the 'shed' to 'learn' about the 'order' of command and to 'atone' for their bad behavior. It may be too 'late' for some of them. Those guys are simply 'loco! It's bad when they make the 'rams' feel safe but the ewe's very nervous. Guess it's good that the rams feel safe. Things could always be worse, I guess.

Bill: you are hilarious! Federal assistance? I'm thinkin' National Guard again....been there, done them...that was the tornado last Monday...near Childress. And the Aggies thought they had a corner on the fun market! NOT!!!

lois said...

drdad: You are soooo funny! However, I'm not as concerned about the ponies that got away as I am about the dudes that tried. They had to pay a lot of clams to atone for that behavior! I'm waiting for the 3D's to 'come' here. The major party is going to be this wkend- seriously! Houston is coming up and even I'm putting supplies in the storm cellar.

Dennis said...

Lois, keeping a body count, or just stacking 'em like cordwood?

I keep watching the national news for something out of OK, but you must be keeping a low to speak.

C.C. Burnikel said...

HERO will come along again soon. I will link "We don't Need another HERO" for you.

You are a "Smooth Operator".

I love Pandora!

Can not tell you how many times I've listened to "You Raise Me Up".

Nancy & Bill,
Travel safely.

Many thanks for the links!

What is "Holy Hotwick"? What songs did you play when you corralled those dudes?

Der katze,
I am curious about your answer to my 34D question too.

Razz said...

C. C. - I can't see your Chinese characters.

Favorite musician - Eric Clapton
Eric & others I like:
Eric - Layla
Eric - You Look Wonderful Tonight
Sheryl & Eric - My Favorite Mistake
Shania - I'm Not in the Mood (to Say No!)
Doors - Light My Fire
Metallica - Nothing Else Matters

We got some rain in San Angelo over the last couple of days! Must be Lois in OK stirring up the atmosphere! Ride 'em cowgirl!

lois said...

Dennis: Funny guy! Body count is more feasible. Bowling pins is more like how they're flying around here. I don't keep many. I hate clutter. Just more things to dust. That's why I didn't keep my halo. Besides, so many men, so little time.

Low profile is more my style, just not the only position I enjoy. The high hilarity is enough to draw attention. I prefer to fly under the radar..shake the earth, make my indelible mark, and keep ridin'.
Fun times!

lois said...

CC: a saintly body part on burning for action?

Well, to begin with , I played 'You've been roped and thrown in the OK Corall', then last night I played 'Heaven's Just a Sin Away', and those guys played 'It don't feel like sinnin' to me' and then I ended up with 'Don't cry on my shoulders cause you're rustin my spurs'. It was all good! Fun times!

flyingears said...

Joining the crossword puzzle crowd! Love comments and CC's inputs. I've been doing these puzzles for a long time and still not sharp. Thanks to my puzzle dictionary... Also love doing Sudoku puzzles.
I'm a US Navy retired flight surgeon specialized in head and neck cancer surgery, but already retired. Now I'm a math teacher in a private academy just to stay busy. Hope that my future comments are OK with you all and hope to learn a lot from you all.

Yes, I also remember Guy Lombardo and also Tito Puente who was a well-known New York (of Puerto Rican descent) percussionist. Rand McNally publish cartology (road maps) books for different countries.


Dennis said...

flyingears, welcome to the group! I hope you enjoy this little dysfucntional, eclectic group that C.C. has brought together. Hope you're a frequent contributor.

Razz said...

Welcome aboard "flyingears" C.C. & the DFs are a wild bunch.

Danielle said...

I liked this one, easy or not - lots of fun cultural references. I guess in this day, with Google and Yahoo maps, it's possible to not know Rand McNally, but they are THE standard in maps. Where I used to work in Philly, there was a Rand McNally STORE a few blocks away - I stopped by on many occasions.

And Linus Pauling is one of my heros, along with Noam Chomsky - scientists who took a stand on societal issues instead of just hunkering down in their laboratories.

By the by, Sault Ste Marie is just down the road from where I live, so you KNOW I loved that one.

I grew up in Arizona, so DUDE RANCHES were completely reviled, but my SIL just came back from a vacation at a dude ranch in Colorado and RAVED about it - said I should take the kids when they get a little older.

Must add my RINGING endorsement for Young @ Heart - a MUST SEE movie for anyone of any age.

My musical tastes are mostly (female) singer/songwriters like Tracy Chapman and Natalie Merchant and Indigo Girls and Alanis Morrisette (she has a new album AND just got dumped by her boyfriend, so it should be GREAT).

From yesterday:
Dick - yes, that's my husband Larry at TRH. Tell him you know me from the crossword site, he'll love that!
MH - I actually like the winters here. I grew up in the Rocky Mountains, so it feels very familiar. Luckily my kids love the snow. My only complaint - the winter is long and spring comes late, but that just makes us appreciate it more. The summers are awesome b/c people pack a year's worth of activities into the only manageable season! Fun!

C.C. Burnikel said...

Welcome! Hope you can identify what's wrong with our dysfunctional families so that proper 18A can be restored.

Indigo Girls are crossword nuts too.

carol said...

Hi C.C. and all you fellow D.F.'s:
Really easy today (finally!)

Bill, have a good time (you too Nancy)!

I really like bluegrass, rock-a-billy and folk music but do not care for classic country-western. Also like classic rock and roll and all the beautiful instrumentals from the 50's.

drdad, looking forward to commenting on your blog - watch out though, you may be in for a rough ride :) :)

Flying gears, welcome to our group of "loco" people. C.C. is our hero and we love what she does each day to educate, entertain, and enable our sometimes naughty behavior.

We had better alert Houston that a storm named Lois is on the way.

Lois, assuming (there's a word for you) that you have checked your Rand McNally on Houston, what (or WHO) are you planning to do there?
Did you get a "summons"? I'll bet you just 37D right down there - be careful, this could be the "onset" of "ram" "fellowship" and you would have to "atone", unless you "gnawed" your way out of it. :)

Dennis said...

Danielle, I used to frequent the Rand McNally store at 17th & Market all the time when I worked at 19th & Market. Great store; lots of unusual stuff.

melissa bee said...

good morning c.c. and all,

c.c. thank you again for making even a simple puzzle so enjoyable. i like your 'man friday' theme. the chinese characters are so beautiful, they make the english alphabet look so plain.

i wanted the clue for 20a to be something about adam, to fit the theme. and i thought it was funny to see the map reference in 26a .. do men use those?

couldn't the cluing for 42a be simply 'traded'?

eeeeeeeeGAD so many straight lines in this puzzle. i'm not touching any of them.

i am a music FREAK (not just the other kind) and have over 15,000 songs on my laptop.

my all time favorite is van morrison, but i'm a sucker (watch it, dennis) for great guitar players. like him

and him.

i even like songs about guitars.

my new favorite is amos lee

@bill: this is for you

C.C. Burnikel said...

RE: "Man Friday". I had this passing thought earlier today that maybe this is not a mix-up mistake. Our editor might purposely changed Norma Steinberg's Wednesday puzzle to today (Friday) to fit the theme. But I could be wrong.

RE: Music: You and I have a Ali Farka Touré connection.

melissa bee said...

@c.c.: ahhhh, another great guitar player yes, so sad he's gone. here is his son covering my favorite ali farka toure tune ai du.

this song is in the seduction scene of the movie unfaithful, which makes it ironic that the lyrics, sung in a Malian language, Songhai, translate to, "Trust and faith in your fellow man has no equal. If you have experienced trust you will know it's strength. You must know yourself before you know others."

C.C. Burnikel said...

RE: RIB. Maybe simply a "Adam's ___" clue? I suddenly got this idea that "The first man's tease?" would be a great clue for ADAM'S RIB next time. Love "Unfaithful". Beautiful music!

Dennis et al,
What do you think of Melissa's 42A: BARTERED comment? BARTER is a kind of Trade (sans money), but Trade is not necessarily BARTER, isn't it?

Razz said...

Melissa Bee - These are for you. How could we forget the incomparable Stevie Ray Vaughn

SRV - Lenny
SRV - Texas Flood

melissa bee said...

@razzberry: thank you .. so many guitarists to appreciate. hm .. good blog idea ..

Dennis said...

I had Ali Farka Toure when I was younger, but it cleared up...

Razz said...

Ali Farka Toure - Isn't that what Lois is doing? ;~p

flyingears said...

Love dysfunctionality and I am in the right blog. flyingears is a made-up name (flight surgeon and ear specialty) that I've been using along for years.


Razz said...

flyingears - glad you cleared that up. Thought maybe you were going to barter us some "flyin' gears" or at the very least teach us how to Fly In Gears...

Yep you are in the right place.

melissa bee said...

@c.c.: maybe 'traded for payment' would be better?

lois said...

Razzberry: Hilarious! Yeah, Ali Farka Toure helps keep my complexion clear. Don't have the slightest blemish! Yipppeee ki yea there, cowboy!!!

Carol: I meant that Houston was coming up here...they were summoned! Had to promise to save the horses and ride the cowboys. No problem! The 3 R's today are Riding, Roping and Rockin'! Rubbing works too but that comes later. Never ride 'em hard and put 'em away wet. Gotta rub 'em down if you want 'em ready to be jumped on at a moment's notice. Besides, can't rush into these things at a supersonic rate. Don't want to spook the cowpokes. That's one reason they're called
'pokes'; the other reason is ... ali farka toure, baby!

Dick said...

Cc I like all types of music from Rock and Roll to Country and Classic. It depends on my mood and right now I am listening to the link for Ali Farka Toure and totally enjoying it.

Flyingears welcom to our Dysfunctional group and if you are slightly DF you will enjoy the site.

Lois I would like to barter with you over a few things and you can say Whoa if you want. This has to be a barter because I think passing money would make this illegal.

Melissa I think the clue for 42A needs the term not for money which more closely identifies a bartered deal.

lois said...

Dennis: Why is it that your frequenting a Rand McNally store not surprise me! Being such a 'morel' and driven fellow, you give a whole new dimension to Atlas (IV).

melissa bee said...

@c.c.: re: holy hotwick .. see comments from 4/29, and then lois's 3:02 response to my infamous posting of the plushenko link on 4/30.

lois said...

Dick: Great idea. What cha got?

flyingears said...

Made photo available to blog...

carol said...

Ali Farka Toure sounds like a fiber problem to me!! Maybe a little Beano would help :) :)

Lois, sorry about the mis-understanding re Houston..glad you are enjoying your visit and that things continue to look "up"! When do you head for home and "achy breaky" all those poor cowboys' hearts??

Anonymous said...

The comic book guy (Jeff Albertson) says; "Easiest. Puzzle. Ever."

Terri said...

I am disappointed! I thought for sure today's puzzle would be difficult since it is Friday, but alas, it was not. I aced it! Amazing. I did know Guy Lombardo, dude ranch, tracts and aggie, so that helped quite a bit. Have a great weekend.

C.C. Burnikel said...

Dr.Dad & Lois,
It's EWE & EWE who created this "Holy Hotwick" that has been confusing me!!!

Personally I think 42A clue is just fine the way it is. Thank you so much for helping me find the origin of this Loisism.

You need to work on your Blogger ID photo. It's not shown here.

melissa bee said...

@c.c. et. al., i'm sure you're right about 42a, i just didn't think trading implied payment.

have a great weekend everyone, it's over 100 here .. whew.

Razz said...

Lois - couldn't let you start the weekend without Mick ;~0

Mick & Da Boys - Play With Fire
Honky Tonk Woman

lois said...

Razz: Outstanding! Thank you. I get 'Stoned' every time I listen to my iPod! Good stuff. I'll toast to you when they play.

Big Pow Wow tonight...but tomorrow night will be even better! Houston is landing! Holy Ali Farka Toure! Even I will fasten my seat belt on my saddle. Might even put some blinders on my horse.

Have a good night.

Mr. Corcoran said...

hey ceecee et've heard this reiterated all day but whadda bohhhhring elan or zip but this lady sure has it
otherwise my musical tastes are eclectic wide-ranging (hey, i've got toure on my ipod).
danielle--studied linguistics ages ago at univ of chicago and the bestest guest lecturer in the world was noam himself!

Mr. Corcoran said...

hmmm i'd make a real hyperlink but those instrucciones we find makes it a hella lotta work...whas wrong wi blogger, eh whot

NYTAnonimo said...

Enjoying razzberry's and melissa bee's music and reminded me of another one I like:
This old heart of mine

Anonymous said...

C.C., I can see the Chinese characters. Great links again. I aced this one in just under ten minutes. As Dennis said, age helps with many answers; I certainly remember Guy Lombardo well.

Music...rock, blues, jazz. Favorite guitarists are Buddy Guy, B.B. King, and Eric Clapton. From long ago, Jimi Hendrix. Saw B.B. in concert several times; he is an amazing talent. Though I'm not a particular fan of country, Roy Clark and the late Chet Atkins are/were great guitarists, as well.

Happy weekend, all.


C.C. Burnikel said...

Thomas, Kit et al,
I've added today's blog comments to "My Favorite Posts" on the front page sidebar. Thank you for sharing.