Mar 15, 2020

Sunday March 15, 2020 Pam Amick Klawitter

Theme: "No Rhyme, No Reason" - The two words in each theme entry have similar spellings but different pronunciations.
23. Costuming choice for a "Cats" performance?: LEOPARD LEOTARD.

37. Proctor's nightmare?: GREAT CHEAT.

41. Tree surgeon's challenge?: TOUGH BOUGH.

51. One skilled at squandering?: MASTER WASTER.

70. Sweeping thoroughfare?: BROAD ROAD.

84. Expert on current energy options?: SOLAR SCHOLAR.

95. Dud of a car that Stephen King might write about?: DEMON LEMON.

100. Chophouse bandit?: STEAK SNEAK.

118. Lazy son, vis-à-vis his lazy dad?: YOUNGER LOUNGER.

Are these called eye rhymes?

I feel English pronunciations are mostly rational, but the above are great examples of the exceptions. And of course, the classic set of Bough, Cough, Through & Dough.

1. Just one of the fam: SIS.

4. Quayle successor: GORE. Not much climate talk lately.

8. Part of PBR: PABST.

13. Brazilian dances: SAMBAS. Rio Carnival goes on.

19. 1881 face-off spot: OK CORRAL.

21. "... only God can make __": Kilmer: A TREE.

22. How some bills are paid: IN CASH.

25. Move to protect a king: CASTLE. Oh, chess move.

26. Put away: EATEN. Look at the empty shelves at the toilet paper section at our local grocery store. Just can't find sushi rice in any of the stores.

27. Mag. edition: ISS.

28. "Hulk" director Lee: ANG.

29. Retired flier, briefly: SST.

30. Fair-hiring abbr.: EOE.

31. Narrow inlets: RIAS.

33. Crowded subway metaphor: SARDINE.

36. Prince in "Frozen": HANS.

44. Just right: TO A TEE.

45. Yucatán's yesterday: AYER. Opposite "Manana"'.

47. Reeves of "Point Break": KEANU.

48. Self-descriptive adjective: OLDE.

49. Prof's assistants: TAS.

57. "Mamma Mia!" song: SOS.

58. See 87-Down: BELT. 87. With 58-Across, area with severely declining industry: RUST.

59. Midori in a rink: ITO.

60. Brother of Macaulay and Rory: KIERAN. I only know Macaulay.

61. Like each succeeding eye chart line: TINIER.

63. Butterflies: NERVES.

66. Broad bean: FAVA.

67. Fathered, biblically: BEGAT.

72. Mont Blanc's range, to its west: ALPES.

73. News source, perhaps: LEAK.

74. Pool slip-up: MISCUE.

75. Author of kids' Busytown books: SCARRY (Richard). Not a familiar name to me.

77. Showing faith in: TRUE TO.

79. Bit of animation: CEL.

80. "We're gonna be late!": C'MON.

81. Utter: SAY.

88. Classic ending?: IST. Classicist. 109. Piece of TNT?: TRI. Trinitrotoluene. 127. Self starter?: ESS.

89. "Mi __ es tu __": CASA.

90. Wide receiver Don who played in five Super Bowls: BEEBE.

91. Shanghai money: YUAN. All have Mao's face.

93. Part of a Norwegian-sounding ice cream name: HAAGEN. I visited Haagen-Dazs Shanghai ages ago.

102. All over: ANEW.

103. Lasagna layer: RICOTTA.

105. More than half: MOST.

106. H.S. dropout's goal: GED.

107. Small shot: BBS.

110. First lady Hoover: LOU.

112. Garlicky spread: AIOLI.

116. "Aladdin" backdrop: ARABIA.

121. They bite: MOLARS.

122. Sleep disorder: APNEA.

123. Fib: TELL A LIE.

124. Prominent Syrian family: ASSADS.

125. Bette's "Divine" nickname: MISS M.

126. Editor's backpedaling: STET.


1. What's underfoot?: SOLE.

2. DIY furniture brand: IKEA. Has any of you tried their cod roe?

3. Robbie Coltrane, e.g.: SCOT.

4. Curling stone: GRANITE.

5. Hockey great: ORR.

6. Salad slice: RADISH. I love daikon.

7. Some annexes: ELLS.

8. Kung __ chicken: PAO.

9. Rose oil: ATTAR.

10. 1971 Peace Prize awardee: BRANDT (Willy). Unknown to me. He looks friendly.

11. Golfer Garcia: SERGIO. His daughter is named Azalea.

12. Talks acronym: TED. Ted talks.

13. Unleashes (on): SICS.

14. Med school subj.: ANAT.

15. Mic wielders: MCS.

16. Flat-bottomed boat: BATEAU. Here is the pic from Wiki.

17. Comparable in distance: AS LONG.

18. "Blimey!" cousin: SHEESH.

20. Run or work: OPERATE.

24. English homework: ESSAY.

29. Rocker Bob: SEGER.

32. Blackjack holding: ACE TEN.

34. "Up and __!": AT 'EM.

35. Zap in the kitchen: NUKE.

36. Indoor buzzer?: HOUSEFLY.

37. Sporty muscle cars: GTOS.

38. Milk Dud rival: ROLO.

39. "CSI" actor George: EADS.

40. Egg-hunt holidays: EASTERS.

42. Sells aggressively: HAWKS. So glad Amazon deleted many accounts of of those price gougers.

43. __ B'rith: BNAI.

46. Deluge result, perhaps: RAIN DELAY.

50. The best one is airtight: ALIBI.

52. Ending for hip: STER.

53. Bilbao bulls: TOROS.

54. Con game, say: TRAP.

55. Roof edge: EAVE.

56. Genetic strands: RNAS. Odd pluralized.

58. Trace: BIT.

61. "Brava!": TAKE A BOW.

62. Cookbook author DiSpirito: ROCCO. What's his signature dish?

64. Protective shot: VACCINE.

65. Dutch wheels: EDAMS.

67. Diner menu staples: BLTS.

68. MIT Chapel designer Saarinen: EERO.

69. Caesar's France: GAUL.

71. Writer of really old stories?: AUEL. Read more here.

72. Valiant's son: ARN.

74. German wine region: MOSEL. Must be gimme for Marti.

76. Abstract expressionist Mark: ROTHKO.

78. Chihuahua choo-choo: TREN. And 96. Juarez winter months: ENEROS. 89. Bar in Baja: CANTINA.

81. Stuffing stuff: SAGE.

82. Well offshore: ASEA.

83. Reb's rival: YANK.

85. Transmitting truckers: CBERS. Thought or Argyle.

86. Sphere opener: HEMI.

92. Dickens title starter: A TALE.

94. Verbal attack: ASSAULT.

95. First European to sail to India: DA GAMA.

97. Gold and silver: MEDALS.

98. Well-armed swimmers?: OCTOPI. Cute clue.

99. Shutout feature: NO RUNS.

101. Good luck charm: AMULET. My friend Roberto used to wear an evil eye.

104. Fork "fingers": TINES.

107. Frequent flier: BIRD.

108. Singer Lance, or the part he sang with *NSYNC: BASS.

111. Leftover scraps: ORTS.

113. Check out creepily: OGLE.

114. Island chains: LEIS.

115. Ticks off: IRES.

117. Barnyard bleat: BAA.

118. Thanksgiving tuber: YAM.

119. Whale group: GAM.

120. World Cup cry: OLE.



Lemonade714 said...

A classic example of why I think English must be the hardest language to learn. A very well crafted Sunday which is typical of a PAK puzzle.

I like the pairing of 19. 1881 face-off spot: OK CORRAL. and 21. "... only God can make __": Kilmer: A TREE which reminded me that Val KILMER played Doc Holliday in 1993's TOMBSTONE . So much to like...

Yucatán's yesterday: AYER which I did not know except the French HIER is so close in sound. RICHARD SCARRY has entertained both my sons and now my grandchildren. The timely VACCINE ; the witty Island chains: LEIS and so many more

We even have a CAESAR on this the ides of March. HBD to RBG and happy Sunday and a virus free world for all who read

desper-otto said...

Good morning!

There was a little crunch to the cereal this morning, moreso than yesterday. I liked it. Even got the theme. My final square was a lucky WAG at the BEEBE/TREN cross. Anyone else try the almost-rhyming METALS before MEDALS? Thanx, Pam, and for the tour, C.C. (I wouldn't look for sushi rice in the toilet paper section.)

AUEL: Clever clue. She wrote stories set at the end of the last ice age when both modern humans and Neanderthals lived in the Danube area near the Black Sea in eastern Europe.

BATEAU: Evokes the bateaux-mouches which ferry tourists on the Seine through central Paris.

ROTHKO: The Rothko Chapel was built by John and Dominique Menil, Houston art patrons, in 1971. It's currently closed for restoration, but is due to reopen later this year. The canvases displayed there are all very dark -- mostly black. People stare at them and some claim to see ethereal images. I saw mostly black.

desper-otto said...

Happy birthday, RBG!

BobB said...

75a Scarry, crossing 76d Rothko was cruel. Both unknowns.

I also had metals before medals.

Jinx in Norfolk said...

DNF, Googling ROTHCO. What BobB said.

kneau-->KEANU, lima-->FAVA, trusts-->TRUE TO, ricatta-->RICOTTA, and soil-->SOLE.

Doesn't the "A" in TA mean "assistant"? Clued "prof's assistant"? And another Frozen clue and the Naticks made this one a "meh" to me. At the risk of having my man card revoked I'll admit that I love AUEL's books.

But the best from the weekend Corner was Picard FLN.
"It is hard to make predictions. Especially about the future." Better than Yogi Berra at his best!

Anonymous said...

DNF I don't mind hard. I mind joyless. Just found this one annoying.Naticks were everywhere. The theme? I won't get started on that.

Irish Miss said...

Good Morning:

I always solve the Sunday puzzles, out of habit more than anything, but I don't get the same satisfaction that a good weekday solve provides. Once in a while, the theme is so clever that I'm challenged and truly enjoy the experience but, alas, that was not the case today. I like Pam's work but this theme seemed more like a classroom exercise than an exciting challenge. I had a few stumbles: Sib/Sis, Hypes/Hawks, Scam/Trap, and, yes DO, Metal/Medal. The usual suspects of proper names needed perps: Scarry, Ayer, and Beebe. I liked the Ster ~ Stet and BBs ~ Beebe duos. CSO to Jayce at Sheesh. Could someone please explain: Self descriptive adjective=Olde?

Thanks, Pam, for a fine effort and thanks, CC, for the informative summary.


Best wishes for better health to Jayce and DW and to housebound, PK.

Stay well, everyone.

Yellowrocks said...

I loved the theme and found it helpful in solving. DNF. I made two silly errors. I left a cell open until last and didn't go back. That doesn't happen when I solve online.
I knew SCARRY. I used his picture books to help build ESL students' vocabulary.
88-A I had ISM instead of IST. For the totally unheard of 76-D that gave me ROMHKO which looked impossible, so I should have looked for an alternative.
Nevertheless I loved this puzzle and thought it had the possibility of FIR.
I suppose joy, like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder.
I spent too much time on EADS and OLDE, but I got them. I thought OLDE was clever.
TA is pronounced by saying just the two letters and not ASSISTANT so I thought prof's assistant was fair. I have never (or seldom?)heard it called teaching assistant, although that is what it is short for.
Jayce and DW, sorry to hear you are under the weather. I hope you soon are back to good health.

billocohoes said...

Agree on the SCARRY/ROTHKO Natick. Did dredge up BEEBE from memory (pronounce Bee-Bee).

Willy Brandt was mayor of West Berlin when the Wall went up, later was Chancellor of West Germany.

jfromvt said...

I liked the theme, and it was fun, but not overly challenging, to figure out. As others have pointed out, elsewhere a few too many proper nouns and Natick for my liking. Makes it into a trivia puzzle instead of a crossword puzzle.

Big Easy said...

SHEESH, I can't believe I finished today. I can't TELL A LIE- non-rhyming words were super easy fills but the FIVE WAGS on unknowns was sheer luck. BEEBE, TREN, MOSEL in one area and SCARRY and ROTHKO in another. MOSEL, Iraq- I know that one.

And there were other unknowns filled by perps- BATEAU, BASS, AYER, KEANU, KIERAN, SCOT, EADS, ROCCO. And as I type those fills GOOGLE underlined everyone except BEEBE, BASS & SCOT in RED. I agree with jfromvt about the proper names and see others had to WAG the same fills.

C.C.- I often wondered how somebody whose native language is NOT English pronounced the non-rhyming words that 'should' rhyme if they learned to read it before learning to pronounce it. Then there are the words spelled the same but pronounced differently. TEAR-TEAR, WIND-WIND, WOUND-WOUND,...etc.

Looking at your photo of the TP section shows how people panic. I went to the grocery Friday to get THREE things- Rack of ribs, a bag of potato chips, and 12-pack of beer. It took 90 minutes to get through ( cough, rough, though-keeping with the theme) the checkout line.

Anonymous said...

Husker Gary said...

-I escaped obscure name jail when EGAN, AUEL and ROTHKO were correct!
-Those of us of a certain age remember PABST for these events
-SHEESH! “What a grouch!” would also be familiar to us OLDE(r) peeps
-TO A TEE – Where you go for the next hole. Sound like Boomer?
-Butterflies – Local farmer is broadcasting milkweed seeds for monarchs
-LEAKS can be used as test balloons with plausible deniability
-Did anyone else have SOIL underfoot at S O _ _?
-DA GAMA, et al, were the astronauts of their day
-OGLE – My old school now requires girls to wear a long garment over leggings to cover their derrières
-We are off to Lincoln today. We are careful but won’t be prisoners.

Misty said...

Well, I found this Sunday puzzle delightful, even though I never get more than odd sections here and there, but it was still fun. So, many thanks, Pam, and I always enjoy your pictures, C.C.

My first good chunk came from putting in ATTAR, which gave me A TREE and, of course, ANG, and then SERGIO and BRANDT filled in. And so it went in corners here and there. Down below in the southwest corner, BAA gave me ARABIA, and I then took a chance on ASSADS, which made me try DAGAMA leading to MOLARS and ENERO. But, like others, I too had METALS before MEDALS for the down. The last southeast corner with ORTS producing TELL A LIE and then, of course, OLE and OGLE and LEIS and IRES was also a treat. So I really enjoyed the puzzle even if I had to cheat with some of the long answers.

Have a great (house-bound, for many of us?) Sunday, everybody.

Lucina said...


Today my newspaper did not have the constructor or the theme which is unusual. However, it didn't take long to see the theme.

I was quite certain that GORE followed Quayle as vice-president and of course, the OKCORRAL is ever present here in Tombstone, AZ. George EADS was one of my favorites in CSI, the original, which I believe, is the best lab drama ever created.

GED was in place so MEDALS emerged nicely. I liked the clues for MOLARS,OCTOPI and laughed at the one for LEAK.

As for the pronunciation of those odd pairs, in my ESL classes I would take at least two classes to teach them and with a much longer list. I occasionally hear from one of my former students and the only one I know of who went on to higher learning and earned a PHD. She was originally from Colombia.

I loved all of Jean AUEL's books.

My former dentist had many of Mark ROTHKO'S paintings throughout his offices. They are a mystery to me, just BROAD strokes aligned together.

Richard SCARRY is well known to most elementary school teachers.

Do many people pay IN CASH? I know of only two people in my circle who go personally to pay their bills with CASH. Mine are all paid through a pre-determined system with my bank. Even my church donation is deducted monthly from my credit card.

Thank you, C.C., for the well-explained tour and as always, a touch of authentic Chinese cuisine.

Stay well, everyone! Out of an abundance of caution I did not go to church today.

Jinx in Norfolk said...

Husker Gary, you must have been typing "-Did anyone else have SOIL underfoot at S O _ _?" when I commented @ 07:58.

Yellowrocks said...

Most churches here will have no services for several weeks. There may be no Easter services. Most schools and colleges are closed with online lessons. Bars and restaurants must close at 10 PM. No dances. Nursing homes are really restricting visitors.

Wilbur Charles said...

I was thinking of the Packer immortal Don Budge. BEEBE is obscure even for me.

We bought a big sack of Jasmine rice in case of hibernation.

There it is finally. I had Pod which became G A d. I thought MISS D for Davis made sense. This was the umpeenth Natick that did me in. One-Box-Wilbur.

Like YR, I enjoyed the theme. Re. ESL, in addition to the theme there are Jinx's list and then the list of multiple meaning words like "round"*.

Lots of Spanish (ok 3) but only BATEAU for French which took 5 perps.


*Including the one Tin is familiar with

Hungry Mother said...

Finally got to the last quarter of yesterday’s offering and did far better than today, where I had 4 wrong cells, all due to names. Conductors, leave your trivia at home.

inanehiker said...

Entertaining puzzle and theme - A few unknowns which relied on perps: BEEBE, EADS, BATEAU (which I had heard of, but if I had to guess I would have said it was a hat!)
Richard SCARRY books were enjoyed by my kids - few words with lots of pictures!

Thanks CC and Pam!
We had church today - but encouraged anyone who wanted to stay home to watch the service live-streamed at home. That may change in the next few weeks, but currently the closest known case is 2 hours away in any direction! Our daughter is supposed to visit this week - hope they don't close down the domestic airports between now and then.

inanehiker said...

An addendum as people yesterday and today were talking about kids and grandkids at home from their schools for the next few weeks:

Scholastic is offering free lessons and activities from their website to help those parents out:

Lemonade714 said...


Abejo said...

Good afternoon, folks. Thank you, Pam Amick Klawitter, for a fine puzzle. Thank you, C.C., for a fine review.

No church today because it was cancelled. So, I slept in a bit. Then got up and hit the crossword. Got through a good share of it with no problems. Caught the theme after LEOPARD LEOTARD. TOUGH BOUGH was next. That helped me with a lot of the puzzle.

PBR was easy for 8A PABST.

Got A TREE for 21A fairly easily. That gave me PAO, which I did not know.

I do not remember Mr. BEEBE. Took me a while and some perps to fill that in.

I also tried METALS before GED gave me MEDALS. OK.

Got ARABIA easily. That helped with the SW corner.

Liked OCTOPI for 98D. Clever.

I was trying to think of what car is made in the Netherlands. Could not. Then it hit me, a cheese wheel. EDAMS

Anyhow, I have to run. Lots to do on this lazy day.

See you tomorrow.


( )

Lemonade714 said...


Wendybird said...

Excellent puzzle today. Unfortunately, I had a real slog due to silly mistakes - SOCK before SOLE; LEAD before LEAK; TRUSTS before TRUE TO; ON LINE before IN CASH. SHEESH indeed!

I still don’t get OLDE. What am I missing?

OCTOPI clue was great.

We are in the “at risk” demographic, so we’re taking all the recommendations from the CDC et al seriously. Sticking pretty much close to home.

Brian said...

I guess OLDE is a self descriptive adjective because it's an old way to spell old.

Chairman Moe said...

Puzzling thoughts:

Hello Cornerites ... I will try to make a weekly appearance if you’ll allow me back into your good graces ...

The “theme” No Rhyme, No Reason is right up my alley! If you recall my limericks and haikus from the past ...

My puzzle sheet looks a bit written-over ... METALS/MEDALS; POD/GAM; AWAY/AT ‘EM; and several uses of ESP to complete the grid ...

My lady friend and I stocked up, spending close to $300 on food and whatnot to keep us going for awhile in the event of an AZ shutdown ...

So far, our state is still holding @ 12 reported/confirmed cases, but we’re taking no chances ...

My limerick du jour has nothing to do with today’s puzzle, and I don’t consider it “political”, but anyway, here goes:

We all fear from the spread of disease.
So for now, with myself to appease;
I don’t care to go out
But I’m hungry, no doubt.
Would I risk it to order Chinese?


Picard said...

I thought the theme was quite clever and I enjoyed it. Hand up the Natick crossings, not so much. I discovered I had accidentally left MISSx/GAx blank. Not sure if I would have done a correct WAG.

As a college freshman our Humanities professor asked us what is the plural of "octopus". I was very proud to venture a guess that it is "octopods" since "pus" means "foot" and I thought of "tripods". He was very proud to say that I was correct. So, I loved the clue for OCTOPI but I wish it was at least acknowledged that it is not really the correct word.

Here are my photos of the SAMBA parade during Carnival in Brazil. The scale is unimaginably huge.

I actually learned OK CORRAL from an episode of the original Star Trek. Did anyone else see that one?

We have had Joyce KILMER twice recently. Learning moment that JOYCE is a man. And learning moment that LOU Hoover is a woman. A very interesting woman at that. And, apparently, a lesbian.

Picard said...

Regarding Yesterday:
Jinx I am honored that my quote "It is hard to make predictions. Especially about the future." made your weekend! I had actually heard it credited to Yogi Berra, but it seems that no one knows for sure its origin.

Here was my article on the latest expert coronavirus information that prompted the quote.

Lucina thanks for the appreciation regarding the story of IMAN and David Bowie. I also don't follow most celebrity news mostly because I don't even know most celebrities. We have quite a few in this town, but I could walk past one and have no idea I did so. But I am a big fan of David Bowie's music and I am sorry he died so young.

Irish Miss said...

Brian @ 5:29 ~ Thank you for answering my and Wendybird's question.

Moe @ 5:39 ~ You may have been out of sight, but you were never out of mind or out of our good graces, IMO. Hope you'll visit often.

CrossEyedDave said...

FLN, (sorta)

HG, you think my links are bizarre?
Well, thank you. I try to be a little "Far Side..."

But, it has to be theme related...

so I will let the readers decide...

Bizarre, or just a little bit out there...?

Crockett1947 said...

Word is that our local newspaper,The Oregonian, will be returning to the L.A. Times crossword tomorrow! So nice to see that the group exists after all these years. Looking forward to this! Hugs to you, C.C.!

Bobbi said...

I join the chorus ....for us this theme caused a confusion contusion. TOATEE totally befuddled me ("one who benefits from a totalling"???) "BRAVA" is what I should hear when females cheer? I'll stop there 'cause I must ration my frustration for Amick's next installment of "Puzzle Charade Parade"!!!

Jinx in Norfolk said...

Picard, I'm aware that a lot of things said by Yogi were quips that he stole. I don't remember that one, but as I said it sounds like something he would have said. No matter the original wag, he made many of those quips famous. Thanks again - don't know why that strikes me as being so funny, maybe it's the state of world health and I'm looking for a little comic relief.

Wilbur Charles said...

Chairman Moe (aka C-Moe) thanks for punching in. You are heartily welcome to visit Owen, Misty et moi at the jumble blog.

And of course, the rest of the corner.

Picard, regardless of the wisdom of Yogi, predicting or even assessing the CV-19 danger is an unknown factor.
Re. Wendty@505
"I still don’t get OLDE. What am I missing?" and notwithstanding Brian...

Can someone ask Pam????. Belay that.

Now I agree with Brian. An Old way to describe being old is OLDE. Thus "Self descriptive". Whew.


Jayce said...

Ye OLDE Book Shoppe: OLDE is the adjective describing the shoppe. It's like saying "This shop is old" referencing itself.

Yep, I put in SOIL before SOLE. And GRE before GED. RHINE before MOSEL. RISOTTO before RICATTA.

I will always think of Hannibal Lecter when I see the word FAVA.

So Penelope does NOT rhyme with antelope???

This OLDE man wishes you all a good day.

Bill G said...

Hi everybody.

I'm becoming seriously depressed over COVID-19... It's the only thing covered in the news broadcasts.

However, I enjoyed 'Sunday Morning' even more than usual today, their 40th anniversary show.

I've said in the past how much I dislike "Liberty Mutual" weak jingle. Now I dislike it even more since they started claiming that "You'll only pay for what you need." Tomorrow morning first thing I'm calling Auto Club to complain that they are charging me too much and I want to only pay for what I need. Geez!

CanadianEh! said...

Late to the party today. Thanks for the fun, Pam and C.C.
I did finish this CW online with a few red-letter helps (this Canadian wanted Biebe for BEEBE), some perp help (for AUEL) and a few WAGS (ROTHKO).
I noted EASTER to the left of MASTER WASTER. (An Easter egg?)

I understood OLDE, but am a little befuddled by CASTLE. I know that a castle is a chess piece but is there a move called CASTLE?? Or should the clue be "Move IT to protect a king". (OK, I just LIUed and there is a chess move called castle or castling. We learn something new doing CWs every day!)

One of my sons especially, loved to look at Richard Scarry books. Now his daughter loves them! Something about the details, I think.

CSO to Jayce with SHEESH. Glad you dropped in; hope you and DW feel better soon.
Good to hear from you Chairman Moe.
Welcome back Crockett1947.

Trying to stay home, but it was a beautiful sunny day, and DH and I went for a short hike at the Conservation Area. More people than usual were there because most activities are shut down, but social-distancing was still possible, and the fresh (though cool) air was wonderful.

Wendybird said...

I loved it!!

Lemonade714 said...

Crockett1947 - wow it has been a while. Look forward to your contributions